HYDROCARBONS: This are compounds that contain only the elements carbon and hydrogen. The sources of hydrocarbons are coal, Natural gas and petroleum. We have lots of hydrocarbons but they are all under Alipahtic and Aromatic. The Aliphatics are divided into Alkanes,Alkenes and Alkynes while the Aromatic has only Benzene… Hope you are cleared? We are moving forward!!!!!1
Petroleum is an aliphatic hydrocarbon. It is a very dark vicious liquid which is found in the ground. It is very abundant is countries like iran, Pakistan, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia etc.
REFINING OF PETROLEUM
Crude oil is refined using fractional distillation. As we all know that it contains lots of complex hydrocarbons so the only way to break it down and refine it is through fractional distillation. The fractional distillation is carried out in a fractionating column or tower.
USES OF PETROLEUM FRACTIONS
- NATURAL GAS: This natural gas are normally methane, ethane, Propane, and butane. methane and ethane are used as fuel while propane and butane are used for cooking.
- Gasoline: This is the most important product of crude oil because it is used in transportation.
- kerosine: This is used in lamps and also for cooking.
- Asphalt or bitumen: it is used in roofing and in the construction of roads
- Lubricating oil and wax
- Diesel oil
Cracking is the process whereby heavy hydrocarbons are split into two or more lighter hydrocarbons while reforming is the transformation of this broke down hydrocarbons to improve its standard. We have two types of cracking. The catalytic and thermal cracking.. catalytic requires a catalyst while thermal requires a heat. Now lets go to the important raw materials in Industries..
- AIR: it is used in the fertilizer manufacturing, Plastics and explosives
- LIMESTONE,Chalk and Marble: It is used in cement manufacturing, Agriculture, Mortar industry etc
- SEA WATER AND SALT: it is used in the textiles and painting,Glass industry, Detergents, Baking,plastics, Insecticides, HCL manufacturing etc
- SULPHUR: Industry using them are the car batteries accumulators
- MINERAL ORES LIKE ALUMINIUM, IRON, COPPER: The industries that uses them are the roofing industries, Alloys manufacturing industries, Cable industry, Household utensils manufacturing industry.
- COAL: It is used in the manufacture of benzebe, coal gas, coal tar, ethyne etc
- PETROLEUM: It is used in the fiber industry, Agricultural, building, Pharmaceutical, paper,solvents, motor, and paper industry.
We are going to drop here for today. If you have questions don’t forget to drop it here cos we are always here for you!!
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