TYPES OF CHANGE:We have two types of changes which is physical and chemical changes. Some changes do not produce new results so they are physical changes while some changes produces new results.Thay are the chemical changes. Physical changes are easily reversed while chemical changes cannot be reversed.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES
1: Physical changes are easily reversible while chemical changes are not reversible.
2:New substances are not formed while new changes are formed.
3:No change in mass while there is change in mass.
ELEMENT,MIXTURE AND COMPOUND
ELEMENT: An element is a substance which cannot be split into simpler substances by any chemical means. We have about 103 elements scattered in different percentages all over the world. There are some other element Which allows the properties of both metals and non metals. They are known as metaloids, Examples are silicon germanium etc
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS AND NON METALS
METALS NON METALS
1. They are generally solids at room temperature They can be gases example oxygen gas, Hydrogen gas, etc
2. They are good conductors of electricity They are poor conductors of electricity
3. Metals are malleable They are brittle
4. Metals have a very high melting point. They have a very high melting point
A compound is a substance formed by two or more different elements which are chemically joined together. Example is calcuim trioxocarbonate(IV). The elements are chemically joined together and cannot be breaked using physical method. Examples of Compounds includes Ethanoic acid, Glucose, Calcium chloride, Sodium hydroxide, Tetra oxosulphate six etc.
This is is a substance that is formed when two or more elements are physically joined together. This mixtures can be separated using physical means. Examples of mixtures includes earth,oil,air,Water etc
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MIXTURES AND COMPOUNDS
They can be separated using physical methods Can only be separated chemically
Formation of mixture doesnt need alot of heat Lots of heats is required
The composition is variable It has a fixed constant variable
Now lets go into separation techniques. Grab a piece of chocolate and enjoy cos is gonna be a little bit long. Separation techniques are used only to separate physical reactions and they include:
4 FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
5 SEPARATING FUNNEL
7 MAGNETIC SEPARATION
Lets dive into the explanation.
DISTILLATION:This technique is used to separate a solvent from a solution. A mixture of ethanol and water can br distilled to obtain ethanol in a separate flask.
FILTRATION:This technique is used to separate insoluble solids from a liquid by the use of filter. An example of insoluble So is sand mixing with water. A mixture of garri and water can be separated using this method.
EVAPORATION: This method is used in obtaining a soluble solid from its solvent. A mixture of water and salt can be separated using this method. The salt solution is poured into an evaporating into an evaporating dish and heated gently over a steam of bath on the bunsen burner.The water is removed or driven off and the salt is left in the dish.
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION:This method is used to separate two or more miscible liquids with close boiling points. Example is fractional distillation of crude oil into parrafin, Petrol,Diesel, Cooking gas, etc
SEPARATING FUNNEL. This method is used to separate two or more immiscible liquids(Which do not mix together to form a single liquid) This liquids will have different densities. An example of this method is Kerosene and water.
SUBLIMATION:This method can be used to separate a mixture which contains a substance that can sublime. Let me break it down. This method is used to separate a solid substance that can change from solid state to gaseous state and then go back to solid state without passing through a liquid state. Examples of substance that go through sublimation includes iodine, Sulphur and ammonium chocolocoride.
MAGNETIC SEPARATION: A magnetic is used here to separate magnetic substances from non magnetic substances. Example is iron filling and sulphur powder can be separated using this method.
DECANTATION: This can be used to separate a mixture of liquid and a denser substance. Example is a mixture of sand and water, Garri and water
PRECIPITATION: Please go and research it yourself or else thunder will fire you there
CHROMATOGRAPHY: This method takes advantage of their different rate of movement in a solvent over an absorbent material. There are different types of this method which includes column chromatography.
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